Back to: Science: Individual Studies
See also: Ecocide from Man-made Wireless Radiation
Several studies are now suggesting an impending disaster for all wildlife from man-made electromagnetic pollution. Experts suggest that the first signs are already visible and that it will be of a magnitude hard for anyone to envisage.
The electromagnetic sensitivity of plants is now well established. It is used in many aspects of horticulture and agriculture. Since many biological electromagnetic effects have 'windows' or bands of effects, and these effects can be opposite to those of other 'windows', care is needed to apply the appropriate frequency.
A school experiment on the growth of cress under WIFi and non-WiFi conditions became international news.
The increase in fungus and viral attacks on different species of trees has been linked with reduced immune systems because of man-made electromagnetic pollution, as has reduced anthocyanin production.
Trees near cellphone towers show increased disease, starting on the side closest to the tower. Experts say that cellphone towers should be banned because of the damage they are causing to nearby trees.
The effects are specific to types of plants, parts of plants, and exposures. WiFi may be particularly harmful to some plants.
About 90% of studies on cellphone radiation on plants show physiological changes:
Plants' environmental sensitivity, memory and cognitive control:
Plants show the ability to learn behaviors from sensitivity to electromagnetic and other environment factors, even though they lack an animal's nervous system, suggesting that pathways like calcium-based regulation can include memory and drive cognitive processes based on a variety of stress sensitivities. As with humans, not all plants display this learnt behavior by association, with about 60% responding and 40% not responding. The metabolic state of the plant and electromagnetic cues from visible light are also significant, with learnt behavior occurring according to the internal circadian rhythm mainly in subjective day. Epigenetic mechanisms help with transcriptional regulation to build systemic acquired resistance at distant sites.
It is well established that some insects are especially electrosensitive, including bees and ants.
This is now well established for a wide range of biological conditions.
nest-building (Malkemper EP et al, (2015)
dogs (Hart V et al, 2013)
fish (Takebe A et al, 2012)
lizards (Diego-Rasilla FJ et al, 2017)
bee foraging and failure to return to hive, perhaps related to colony collapse disorder (Liang CH et al, 2016).
birds unable to adapt to RF fields (Wiltschko R et al, 2015).
mice nesting show clockwise shift (Malkemper EP et al, 2015).
Most of the mechanisms and pathways established for human Electromagnetic Sensitivity were first shown for animals such as rats and mice (see: Science - Mechanisms)
Bees detect electric fields using mechanosensory hairs (Sutton GP et al, 2016)
Two different magneto-reception systems have been proposed for bird and fish navigation:
- or possibly MagR, a protein combining both (Cyranoski D, 2015)
The latest studies indicate that much marine life is sensitive to man-made electrical and sonar pollution.
1. There are three main sources:
(a) Cathodic currents used to slow marine corrosion on metal hulls of ships, pipe-lines, oil platform rigs, marine wind turbine installations, floating platforms.
(b) Microwave pulsed microwave radiation from ship and shore radar and communications.
(c) Sonar detection from military and fishing ships.
2. The effects on marine life include the following.
(a) Coral reef corrosion or oxidation, where calcium (a mineral or metal) carbonate structures are especially affected.
(b) Fish and cetaceans, which can be overheated by, for instance, lock-on radar systems.
(c) Fish and cetaceans, which can be adversely and cumulatively affected by low-level electrical currents induced by radar and radio frequency transmissions,
(d) Divers if not wearing dry suits, where approaching within 3,000 feet of a ship can cause cardiac arrest.
1. Animals best suited to formulate EM exposure limits
Because animals are more easily studied objectively than humans, it has been suggested that their sensitivity could be used for formulating biological safety limits. This could be true for the Fruit Fly (Margaritis LH et al, 2014).
2. Animal Electromagnetic Hyper-Sensitivity
A growing number of anecdotal reports show that the there are variations in the degree of sensitivity to electromagnetic exposure displayed by animals, just as there are among humans. This is an inevitable consequence of biological diversity even with a single species, including genetic variants and differences in diet, habitat and behavior. People with Electromagnetic Sensitivity often report that their pet cat or dog, if the animal is particularly sensitive to electromagnetic exposure, prefers to find an area of the house or yard for sleep which the use of an electronic meter shows is the area with the lowest level of electromagnetic pollution. Similarly, an especially sensitive pet avoids typically avoids areas with especially high electrosmog.
Since wildlife is affected as much as humans by the high levels of man-made radiation on Earth, new biological non-thermal safety limits are needed to protect wildlife as well as humans.
For hundred of years it has been known that plants in particular show responses to solar electromagnetic events, such as the sunspot cycle. These effects are more difficult to detect in humans, but attempts through chronobiology often show similar patterns (Hrushesky WJM et al, 2011).
A potentially important theory has recently been proposed (Bevington, 2015), that some lunar biological effects, which have been established since ancient times for most plants, some animals and some humans, may relate to variations in electromagnetic exposure at the phases of the lunar Full Moon at night, or at New Moon's lunar wake in daytime. If confirmed, this would explain many plant and animal observations, in addition to human behavioral and medical changes among those especially sensitive to electromagnetic exposure.