The Science about ES - individual studies

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 EMF Intolerance Syndrome  (Professor Dominque Belpomme, ARTAC, Paris): 

    ​phase 1: stress (headaches, ear pain/heat, tinnitus, surface/body pains)

    phase 2: functional impairment of the nervous system:

        - triple state: insomnia, fatigue, depression

        - autonomic effects: chest tightness, tachycardia, nausea, etc.,

        - short-term memory loss

        - muscular changes

    various clinical manifestations
          report on physiology of Electrosensitivity (2012)    lecture on EMF Intolerance Syndrome (2010) 

          Le syndrome d'intolerance aux champs electromagnetiques (SICEM) (French) (2010)

          Dr Dominique Belpomme: "Le syndrome d'intolerance aux champs electromagnetiques avec le Dr Belpomme" (French, Radio                              Canada, June 6th 2014, 19 minutes; summary in English)

      Dr Pierre Le Ruz: EMFs and Magnetosomes (French, with English subtitles, 2 min., 2014)


Review of Electrosensitivity

  • Genius SJ & Lipp CT: "Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: fact or fiction?" Sci Tot Env. (2012) 414: 103-112. PMID: 22153604. article (including socio-economic effects​)


Selected Studies on Electrosensitivity


Articles confirming the existence of real physical Electromagnetic Hyper-sensitivity
(different from WHO's Electrophobia):

Although EHS was discovered in 1932 and confirmed in eastern countries such as the USSR and Poland in the 1960s, it was not confirmed without doubt in some western countries until 2015, with the publication of a set of articles showing the physical objective markers used to diagnose EHS, as opposed to the subjective psychological markers for Electrophobia or IEI-EMF.



Evidence for Electrosensitivity

  • Belpomme D et al: “Reliable disease biomarkers characterizing and identifying electrohypersensitivity and multiple chemical sensitivity as two etiopathogenic aspects of a unique pathological disorder” Rev Environ Health (2015) PMID: 26613326; pdf.
  • Belyaev I et al: “EUROPAEM EMF Guideline 2016 for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of EMF-related health problems and illnesses” Rev Environ Health (2016) PMID: 27454111pdf.
  • Black B et al: “Anthropogenic Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Elicit Neuropathic Pain in an Amputation Model” PLoS One (2016) PMID: 26760033.
  • Buchner K, Eger H: "Changes of Clinically Important Neurotransmitters under the Influence of Modulated RF Fields - A Long-term Study under Real-life Conditions" Umwelt-Medizin-Gesellschaft (2011) (copy)
  • ​Carpenter DO: “Excessive exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields may cause the development of electrohypersensitivity” Altern Ther Health Med. (2014) Research Gate; PMID: 25478802.
  • Carpenter DO: “The microwave syndrome or electro-hypersensitivity: historical background” Rev Environ Health (2015) PMID: 26556835.
  • Chiu CT et al: “Mobile phone use and health symptoms in children” J Formos Med Assoc. (2014) PMID: 25115529.
  • Czerski P et al: "Przypadek 'choroby mikrofalowej'" Medycyna Pracy  (1964).
  • De Luca C et al: "Metabolic and genetic screening of electromagnetic hypersensitivity subjects as a feasible tool for diagnostics and intervention"Mediators Inflamm. (2014) PHID: 24812443 
  • Gangi S, Johansson O: "Skin changes in "screen dermatitis" versus classical UV - and ionizing irradiation-related damage - similarities and differences" Exp Dermatol. (1997) PMID: 9412815

  • ​Genius SJ: "Fielding a current idea: exploring the public health impact of electromagnetic radiation" Public Health (2006) PMID: 17572456 article
  • Ghadamgahi M et al:  (2016) “Memory loss risk assessment for the students nearby high-voltage power lines - a case study” Environ Monit Assess. (2016) PMID: 27194231.
  • Griesz-Brisson M: "Electrosensitivity from a neurological point of view" Neuroepidemiology (2013) 41: 275, no.227
  • Hassig M et al: "Influence of non ionizing radiation of base stations on the activity of redox proteins in bovines" BMC Vet Res. (2014) PMID: 24946856
  • Havas M: "Evidence of Electrosensitivity" (video of lecture, 33 mins, Ecological Options Network, 2009)
  • Havas M: "Radiation from wireless technology affects the blood, the heart, and the autonomic nervous system" Rev. Environ Health, (2013) 28(2-3): 75-84. PMID: 24192494
  • Havas M: "Replication of heart rate variability provocation study with 2.45-GHz cordless phone confirms original findings" Electromagn Biol Med, (2013) 32(2): 253-266. PMID: 23675629
  • Hedendahl L et al: “Electromagnetic hypersensitivity - an increasing challenge to the medical profession” Rev Environ Health (2015) PMID: 26372109.
  • Ikeda K et al: “Association between mobile phone use and depressed mood in Japanese adolescents: a cross-sectional study” Environ Health Prev Med. (2014) PMID: 24347468.
  • Khurana VG et al: “Epidemiological evidence for a health risk from mobile phone base stations” Int J Occup Environ Health (2010) PMID: 20662418
  • Köteles F et al: "Idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF) and electrosensitivity (ES) - are they connected?" Int J Hyg Environ Health (2013) PMID: 22698789
  • Johansson O.: "Electrohypersensitivity; State-of-the-Art of a Functional Impairment"El Biol & Med. (2006) PMID: 17178584

  • Johansson O et al: "Cutaneous mast cells are altered in normal health volunteers sitting in front of ordinary TVs/PCs - results from open-field provocation experiments" J Cut Pathol. (2001) PMID: 11737520

  • Johansson O et al.: "Skin changes in patients claiming to suffer from "screen dermatitis": a two-case open-field provocation study" Exp Dermatol. (1994) PMID: 7881769
  • McCarty DE et al.: "Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: evidence for a novel neurological syndrome" Int J Neurosci. (2011) 121(12): 670-676. PMID: 21793784.

  • Pall ML: “Electromagnetic fields act via activation of voltage-gated calcium channels to produce beneficial or adverse effects” J Cell Mol Med. (2013) PMID: 23802593.
  • Rea WJ, Pan y, Yenyves EJ, Sujisawa I, Suyama H, Samadi N, Ross GH: "Electromagnetic field sensitivity" J Bioelectricity (1991) 10: 241-256. (copy)
  • Redmayne M et al: “The relationship between adolescents' well-being and their wireless phone use: a cross-sectional study” Environ Health (2013) PMID: 24148357.
  • Sage C: “The implications of non-linear biological oscillations on human electrophysiology for electrohypersensitivity (EHS) and multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS)” Rev Environ Health (2015) PMID: 26368042.
  • Szyjkowska A et al: “The risk of subjective symptoms in mobile phone users in Poland - an epidemiological study” Int J Occup Med Environ Health (2014) PMID: 24692074.
  • Tuengler A & von Klitzing: "Hypothesis on how to measure electromagnetic hypersensitivity" Electromagn. Biol. Med. (2013) 32(3):281-90, PMOD: 23301924
  • Villoresi G et al: “[Myocardial infarct and geomagnetic disturbances: analysis of data on morbidity and mortality]” Biofizika (1998) PMID: 9783069.

Electrosensitivity symptoms, neurological conditions and cancers

  • Abdel-Rassoul G et al.: "Neurobehavioral effects among inhabitants around mobile phone base stations" Neurotoxicology  (2007) PMID: 16962663
  • Balik HH et al.: “Some ocular symptoms and sensations experienced by long term users of mobile phones” Pathol Biol (Paris). (2005) PMID: 15708652.
  • Balikci K et al.: “A survey study on some neurological symptoms and sensations experienced by long term users of mobile phones” Pathol Biol (Paris). (2005) PMID: 15620607.
  • Blettner N et al.: "Mobile phone base stations and adverse health effects: phase 1 of a population-based, cross-sectional study in Germany" Occup Environ Med. (2009) PMID: 19017702
  • Borkiewicz A et al.: "Subjective symptoms reported by people living in the vicinity of cellular phone base stations: review" (Polish) Med Pr. (2004) PMID: 15620045
  • Divan HA et al: "Prenatal and postnatal exposure to cell phone use and behavioral problems in children" Epidemiology (2008) PMID: 18467962 
  • Dode A et al.: "Mortality by neoplasia and cellular telephone base stations in the Belo Horizonte municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil" Sci Total Environ. (2011) PMID: 21741680
  • Eger H, Jahn M: "Specific Health Symptoms and Cell Phone Radiation in Selbitz, Bavaria, Germany - Evidence of a Dose-Response Relationship" Umwelt Medizin Gesellschaft (2010) translation
  • Eger H et al.: "The influence of being physically near to a cell phone transmission mast on the incidence of cancer" Umwelt Medizin Gesellschaft (2004) translation
  • Eger H, Neppe F: "Cancer incidence from residents within a mobile phone base station in Westphalia - interview-based pilot survey and risk assessment​" Umwelt Medizin Gesellschaft (2009) article [German]
  • Eyvazlou M et al: “Association between overuse of mobile phones on quality of sleep and general health among occupational health and safety students” Chronobiol Int. (2016) PMID: 26942630.
  • Gomez-Perretta C et al: "Subjective symptoms related to GSM radiation from mobile phone base stations: a cross-sectional study"BMJ Open (2013) PMID: 24381254

  • Hannemann PF et al: “The effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and pulsed electromagnetic fields bone growth stimulation in acute fractures: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials” Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. (2014) PMID: 24895156.
  • Hänninen O et al: “Cardiovascular Responses to Electromagnetic Radiation” J. Afr. Ass. Physiol. Sci. (2013) pdf.
  • Hojo S et al.: “Development and evaluation of an electromagnetic hypersensitivity questionnaire for Japanese people” Bioelectromagnetics (2016) PMID: 27324106.
  • Hutter H et al.: "Subjective symptoms, sleeping problems, and cognitive performance in subjects living near mobile phone base stations" Occup Environ Med. (2006) PMID: 16621850
  • Huttunen P et al.: "Involuntary human hand movements due to FM radio waves in a moving van" Acta Physiol Hung. (2011) PMID: 21616774
  • Johansson O: “Electrohypersensitivity: a functional impairment due to an inaccessible environment” Rev Environ Health (2015) PMID: 26613327; pdf.
  • Kolodynski AA, Kolodynska W: "Motor and psychological functions of school children living in the area of the Skrunda Radio Location Station in Latvia" Sci Total Environ. (1996) PMID: 8717320
  • Küçer N:  “Some ocular symptoms experienced by users of mobile phones” Electromagn Biol Med. (2008) PMID: 18568938.
  • Lamech F: “Self-Reporting of Symptom Development From Exposure to Radiofrequency Fields of Wireless Smart Meters in Victoria, Australia: A Case Series” Altern Ther Health Med. (2014) PMID: 25478801.
  • Levallois P et al.: "Study of self-reported hypersensitivity to electromagnetic fields in California" Environ Health Perspect. (2002) PMID: 12194896
  • Navarro E et al.: "The Microwave Syndrome: A preliminary study in Spain" Electromagn Biol Med. (2003) article
  • Oberfeld G et al.: "The Microwave Syndrome: Further Aspects of a Spanish Study" (2002) article 
  • Papageorgiou CC et al.: "Effects of wi-fi signals on the p300 component of event-related potentials during an auditory hayling task" J Integr Neurosci. (2011) PMID: 21714138
  • Redmayne M et al: “Could myelin damage from radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure help explain the functional impairment electrohypersensitivity? A review of the evidence” J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. (2014) PMID: 25205214.
  • Redmayne M et al: “Radiofrequency exposure in young and old: different sensitivities in light of age-relevant natural differences” Rev Environ Health (2015) PMID: 26613328.
  • Saini R et al.: “Neurological dysfunction and mobile phones” J Neurosci Rural Pract. (2010) PMID: 21799627; article.
  • Santini R et al.: "Survey study of people living in the vicinity of cellular phone base stations" Electromagn Biol Med. (2003) article
  • Santini R et al.: "Investigation on the health of people living near mobile telephone relay stations: I. Incidence according to distance and sex" Pathol Biol. (Paris) (2002) PMID: 12168254
  • Santini R et al.: "Symptoms experienced by people in the vicinity of base stations: II. Incidence of age, duration of exposure, location of subjects in relation to the antennas and other electromagnetic factors" Pathol Biol. (Paris) (2003) PMID: 12948762
  • Schaap K et al: "Occupational exposure of healthcare and research staff to static magnetic stray fields from 1.5-7 Tesla MRI scanners is associated with reporting of transient symptoms" Occup. Environ. Med., (2014) 71(6):423-9, PMID: 24714654
  • Sudan M et al: "Prenatal and postnatal Cell Phone Exposure and Headaches in Children" Open Pediatr. Med. Journal (2012) PMID: 23750182
  • Shahbazi-Gahrouei D et al.: "Health effects of living near mobile phone base transceiver station (BTS) antennae: a report from Isfahan, Iran" Electromagn Biol Med. (2013) PMID: 23781985
  • Tang A et al: “Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of the Brain: Mechanisms from Animal and Experimental Models” Neuroscientist (2015) PMID: 26643579.
  • Tresidder A et al.: “Electrosensitivity: Sources, Symptoms, and Solutions” in Rosch PJ (ed.) Bioelectromagnetic and Subtle Energy Medicine; CRC Press, (2014) 2nd ed.
  • Westerman R et al.: “Diseases of modern living: neurological changes associated with mobile phones and radiofrequency radiation in humans” Neurosci Lett. (2004) PMID: 15135881.
  • Wolf R, Wolf D: "Increased incidence of cancer near a cell-phone transmitter station" Int J Cancer Prev. ​(2004) article


​Evidence that worry or Electrophobia ('nocebo' effect) is not the cause of electrosensitivity and MCS symptoms:
  • Augner C, Hacker GW: "Are people living next to mobile phone base stations more strained? Relationship of health concerns, self-estimated distance to base station, and psychological parameters" Indian J Occup Environ Med. (2009) PMID: 20442833
  • Augner C et al.: "Effects of exposure to GSM mobile phone base station signals on salivary cortisol, alpha-amylase, and immunoglobulin A" Biomed Environ Sci. (2010) PMID: 20708499
  • Dieudonne M: "Does electromagnetic hypersensitivity originate from nocebo responses? Indications from a qualitative study" Bioelectromagnetics (2016) PMID: 26369906 
  • Eriksson N et al.: “The psychosocial work environment and skin symptoms among visual display terminal workers: a case referent study” Int J Epidemiol. (1997) PMID: 9447405
  • Gómez-Perretta C et al.: "Subjective symptoms related to GSM radiation from mobile phone base stations: a cross-sectional study" BMJ Open. (2013) PMID: 24381254
  • Papageorgiou CC et al.: "Effects of wi-fi signals on the p300 component of event-related potentials during an auditory hayling task" J Integr Neurosci. (2011) PMID: 21714138


Confirmation that EM exposure is a tumor promoter (i.e. radio frequency and ELF should be 2A probable cancer agents):

  • Lerchl A et al: "Tumor promotion by exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields below exposure limits for humans" Biochem Biophys Res Commun. (2015) PMID: 25749340
  • Sofftitti M et al: "Life-span exposure to sinusoidal-50 Hz magnetic field and acute low-dose γ radiation induce carcinogenic effects in Sprague-Dawley rats" Int J Radiat Biol (2016) PMID: 26894944


Confirmation that EM radiation is a cause of brain tumors (i.e. radio frequency should be a class 1 certain cancer agent):

  • Hardell L et al: “Using the Hill viewpoints from 1965 for evaluating strengths of evidence of the risk for brain tumors associated with use of mobile and cordless phones” Rev Environ Health (2013) PMID: 24192496.


Evidence of ES symptoms, but with disproved hypothesis of only heating effects:

  • Moen BE et al.: "Accidental exposure to electromagnetic fields from the radar of a naval ship: a descriptive study" Int Marit Health (2013) PMID: 24408137  


 Evidence for non-thermal sensitvity down to a single photon:


Presentations on EHS:


Collections of studies:

In 2014, of 84 studies on EHS, a review showed that 38 were positive (i.e. supported real physical EHS, not the different condition of Electrophobia), 21 were neutral, and 25 were negative (S. Weller, 2014)






Electrosensitivity