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In 2011 the Council of Europe advised each member state to provide 'White' zones for ES people.
Parliamentary Assembly resolution 1815 (2011)
The International Organization for Migration (IOM), based in Geneva (162 member states in 2015), began in 1951 to help resettle 11 million people in western Europe uprooted after the second World War. “IOM defines a migrant as any person who is moving or has moved across an international border or within a State away from his/her habitual place of residence, regardless of (1) the person’s legal status; (2) whether the movement is voluntary or involuntary; (3) what the causes for the movement are; or (4) what the length of the stay is.” “Although IOM has no legal protection mandate, the fact remains that its activities contribute to protecting human rights, having the effect, or consequence, of protecting persons involved in migration.”
Dr Yael Stein: "Environmental Refugees Electrohypersensitive individuals (EHS) in the digital world – a disabled population, deprived of home, work and basic rights" (presentation to the UNESCO conference, 2015)
Notes from the 82 slides:
“EHS human rights”
1. “Environmental Refugees Electrohypersensitive individuals (EHS) in the digital world – a disabled population, deprived of home, work and basic rights” by Dr. Yael Stein MD Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine Hebrew-University, Hadassah Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel, and UNESCO Chair in Bioethics. Presented at the 2015 World Conference.
2. Co-authors: Dr. Mbong Eta Ngole, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaounde, Cameroon; Dr. Gaurav Aggarwal, UNICEF, India; Dr. Joel M Moskowitz, University of California, Berkeley, Center for Family & Community Health, School of Public Health, USA.
3. Introduction, Adults, Public Transportation, Children, EHS as Disability, EHS Refuge Zones.
4. In primary school in England, in 1981, each child had to drink a bottle of milk every day. Lactose intolerance? Never heard of it: Not acceptable.
5. Suppose… …It had been a sugar-sweetened drink, and children with Diabetes were made to drink it every day as well: Not acceptable.
6. Suppose… Sugar was added into everyone’s tap water: Harming people with diabetes; Inducing more diabetes in the population: Not acceptable.
7. Suppose… People of a specific Ethnic group were not allowed into a public space, court of law, hospital, library, airport: Not acceptable.
Or: People with hearing disability were not allowed into that same public space: Not acceptable.
8. Suppose… People under a certain height or people of a specific skin colour were not allowed to use Public Transport: Not acceptable.
Suppose ... Smart Meters, WiFI
9. Suppose… “Smart Meters” were installed in all private homes and some people complained that the EM waves emitted from them were making them sick; complaints were ignored or dismissed as “nonsense”. Some people had to leave their home, because could not be near Smart Meters. The more Smart Meters installed, the more people developed health symptoms…: Imaginary??
Or: WiFi was installed in every school: Some children complained of headaches, sleep disturbance, tremors, sore eyes, other pain sumptoms: ignored or dismissed as”nonsense” : Imaginary??
Or: WiFi was installed in every bus, train, airplane: Some people could no longer use Public Transport because of hypersensitivity to EMF exposure: Imaginary??
Suppose ... Refugees
10. Suppose… A specific population today, in the modern Western world: May not enter public places, including many streets; Cannot receive health or law services, In some cases also religious services; Must leave work; Must leave home; People look for refuge areas, far from society.
11. How would you define this population? Is this situation ethically acceptable?
13. There is a growing amount of refugees, right here, right now, in the wealthiest countries in the world. They are people who have become sensitized to the very commodity that our modern world runs on, the microwave radiation that powers our wireless digital technology economy.
16. NY attorney, legal and business adviser for investments company, married to a researcher and scientific journal editor: cannot enter most public spaces, has difficulty walking in most streets, could not sleep at her own home, could not spend more than a few minutes at home, no choice but to leave her work, no choice but to sleep in her car until she found an EMF-free refuge.
17. Relocated to an isolated house, in the mountains of a natural reserve in northern New York, far away from antennas and cell phones, from laptops and wireless Internet Divorced – so that her husband would not have to share this refugee fate Has renounced hope of motherhood – because she cannot enter public spaces such as hospitals and clinics.
18. Dafna Tachover divorced because she could no longer live anywhere near modern society, because of EMF exposure everywhere she chose to set her husband free, not to become a Refugee with her. Does society have the right to outcast people from their families & home?
19. …freedom to choose her residence.
Judge Barbara Domberger
20. Judge Barbara Domberger: Recovery in an EMF White Zone: in her camper-van in the woods.
22. Per Segerbäck, 54 years old, lives in a modest cottage in a nature reserve some 75 miles northeast of Stockholm. Wolves, moose and brown bears roam freely past his front door. He keeps limited human company, because human technology makes him physically ill. How ill? On a walk last summer, he ran into one of his few neighbours, a man who lives in a cottage about 100 yards away. During their chat, the man's cellphone rang. Segerbäck was overcome by nausea. Within seconds, he was unconscious. Symptoms: breathing problems, heart palpitations and loss of consciousness. 23. Segerbäck was once an elite telecommunications engineer. He worked for Ellemtel, a division of the Swedish telecom giant Ericsson, for more than 20 years, leading an engineering group that designed advanced integrated circuits for prototype telecommunication systems. He used the newest and most advanced computer and telecom equipment available, the kind of stuff only Ericsson and the Swedish military had access to. He was, as a result, up to his eyeballs in a non-ionizing radiation bath, from computers, fluorescent lights and the telecom antenna located right outside his window. His first symptoms, after 10 years of work, were dizziness, nausea, headaches, burning sensations and red blotches on his skin.
24. A new office space was created for the worst-affected employees; about half a dozen people shared this fully shielded room. Ericsson went to great lengths to keep Segerbäck, a key member of the firm's design team, on the job. In the early 1990s, the company installed metal shields around his bedroom and study at home so he could sleep and work without radiation exposure. To enable him to go outside, medical authorities gave Segerbäck an EMF-resistant suit like the ones worn by engineers working in close proximity to live telecom towers and high-voltage power lines. The firm even modified a Volvo so he could travel safely to and from work. Cellphone towers that began to spring up around Stockholm in the mid-1990s, eventually forced his retreat to the woods.
25. Phil Inkley, in the United Kingdom, says he first experienced symptoms of EHS around the time that WiFi came along. He had been working as a sound technician and, being from a "techy" background, regularly fixed computers for family and friends. After a day working around strong WiFi he would feel pressure at his temples and fluttering pains in his chest. ‘The man living alone in the woods to escape WiFi and mobile phones’ The Guardian 20 July 2012
26. Amir Bornstein: an electrical engineer, who made his first cellphone call at age 23 but felt headache and ear pain, which he ignored until age 32. He moved house opposite a cell tower, a co-worker talked on a cellphone all day, and the cellphone tower began to broadcast 3G. He suffered an unending and unbearable headache for 18 months.
27. He stopped using cellphones and rearranged and shielded his home using wired connections only. He redesigned his electrics lab, taking EHS into account and quit hi-tech work. He is now active for EHS awareness, and sells EMF measurement devices and shielding aids.
28. Nokia’s former Technology Chief, Matti Niemelä, 44 years old, from Tampere, Finland, says: ‘Mobile phones wrecked my health’. He was involved in the development the world’s first mobile phones. Today, he can move only using a walker. He was recruited to work for Nokia in 1997. He was Nokia’s Chief Technology Officer for ten years. He was involved in developing the world’s first mobile phones, memory sticks and WLAN [Wi-Fi] connections. He used a communicator [early model smart-phone], and his exposure to radiation was very strong from morning to night, and even at night. ‘The irony of this is that I can no longer use any of those devices, which I have been developing.’
29. His first symptoms appeared already within a year. While playing badminton, he could no longer hit the ball during a serve. He didn’t dare go to the doctor, mainly because of the fear of brain cancer. He couldn’t walk around while talking on the mobile-phone, because it caused coordination problems. His speech was slurred. His ear felt hot when he talked on the phone for longer times. He continued using the phone until ‘he could no longer feel his own skin’. Going public with his story carries a big risk for Niemelä: ‘I’m scared to talk about this in public, because I do not want to be labelled as crazy’. The subject of mobile phone radiation has always been kept silent at Nokia. ‘You couldn’t talk about it within the company. Yet, among the staff, it was speculated whether the radiation could cause damage. However, no one dared to bring it up, because it could get them fired.’
30. Jeromy Johnson: ‘In 2011, I was on top of the world. Healthy, happy and active with a successful career in Silicon Valley that provided ample time for my wife, who is a medical doctor, and I to travel and pursue our many interests. As a civil engineer and as a manager at a large Silicon Valley firm, I was around multiple computers, Wi-Fi and cell phones nearly 24/7 for over a decade without feeling any ill effects . That all changed when we returned from summer vacation that year. Within days of being back in our San Francisco home we both began to experience intense headaches, heart palpitations, tinnitus and insomnia. We had never experienced this before. Oddly, the symptoms diminished when we left our home. After a week of this, I mentioned our situation to a friend at work and she said the exact same thing happened to her husband when a wireless “smart” meter was installed on their home. I went home that evening and found that while we were away that summer our utility had installed a bank of wireless “smart” meters directly below our bedroom.
31. We asked our utility company immediately and repeatedly, but it took four months for PG&E to remove the “smart” meters. During that time we had to abandon our home because our health diminished to a point that frightened us. We moved temporarily to a town without smart meters for relief, however, the damage to our bodies had already been done. After 10+ years of using wireless technology with no worries and no problems at all, I could now feel when I was near a cell phone tower. I experienced a splitting headache when attempting to use my cell phone (I used to love my Droid “Smart” Phone). Within minutes of using WiFi, I had a headache that would last all day. Even using a computer became painful. Being in a city became very difficult. My only refuge was nature – where the symptoms would go away completely within 24 hours.
32. Lisa: Four 3-watt wireless smart meters installed December 1, 2012; health problems began there after. Three of the four meters were removed on January 23, 2013, and symptoms decreased. Weeks after the final meter was replaced with analog on February 5, 2013, heart palpitations were undetectable for three days, but slight headache and tinnitus remains. I was seeking to relocate my family as soon as possible. Beginning in early December of 2012, I began experiencing periodic tachycardia upon waking; this lasted anywhere from 10 to 30 seconds. Soon after, my heart gave off a single and sharp irregular beat during the day. This anomaly occurred with more frequency in the following days and weeks, as did the tachycardia. Concurrent with heart abnormalities, a pressure in my head began and continued to build, constant pressure, undulating but unrelenting, and growing daily in severity. It was unlike the occasional headache I have experienced in the past where the slightest movement produced a pounding sensation. This headache consisted of a pressure over my entire skull with a tingling sensation on my scalp. Tinnitus eventually accompanied the headache, first noticeable at night. I have never before had ringing in my ears. I attributed this ringing to my inability to fall asleep, though I truly did not feel tired. I actually felt energized, or excited.
Rev. Carsten Häublein
34. Carsten Häublein, a German priest, suffered from EHS for 10 years. He committed suicide on February 14 2013. He could no longer take the pain of the ‘Fire’ 4G LTE, which “burned inside his head”. Since summer 2006, transmission facilities were upgraded in Oberammergau, and Reverend Carsten Häublein couldn’t sleep anymore. He suffered “hellish torments” and searched in different places for refuge, including sleeping in a low radiated forest. Retiring from his pastoral position, in April 2009 after a long search, he finally found a low radiation spot to live (in Schleswig-Holstein). Beginning July 2012, after LTE (fourth mobile phone generation for fast wireless Internet access – 4G) was in operation, his health went down dramatically, he complained about “roaring, banging and hissing in the head” and was desperate because of the feeling that his “whole body vibrated”.
35. Anonymous, 27 October 2013: Constant headaches, skull pains, jaw bone pains, constant ringing in ears, heavy legs, lack of energy, breast and ovary pains, major sleep disturbances, heart palpitations, feeling sick a lot of the time, feeling stressed and sometimes suicidal when the equipment is at it's strongest.
36. A bit far-fetched? Some EHS have reported considering suicide, if there is nowhere to escape.
38. Josevane, 14 Oct 2013: “I'm EHS. My worst symptom is insomnia. I'm Brazilian. This country is too big, but I cannot find a safe place to sleep. Waves and electromagnetic fields are everywhere. I was away from my job because I was always tired and fatigue. I need help, a doctor who can diagnose EHS.
39. Dalit, an Israeli informatics expert, developed EHS 5 years ago. She lives in a public bomb shelter to avoid all electric appliances and EMF devices. She cannot tolerate any electric devices, including light bulbs. Camera Flash causes her physical pain. It all began 5 years ago. After a regular phone call on her iPhone, Dalit suddenly felt her ear “burning”. Later she began feeling sensations like electric current, burn and tingling in her arms and legs, when standing near electric emitting devices. She was examined by an ENT physician, who found nothing. She continued using her iPhone but 6 months later she developed continuous pain in several lymph nodes: neck, sub auricular, axillary and abdominal. She also developed pain in her knee, and a limp. Currently she is weak and malnourished, but admission to hospital is impossible in her position.
40. The only solution for Dalit’s health situation is to relocate her to an EMF-free refuge zone where there is no EMF exposure, no WiFi, no electric appliances, no cell-towers.
41. Peter Lloyd has been confined to a sofa bed in his home and is unable to use mains electricity for heat or light – “The man allergic to the modern world: Electromagnetic hypersensitivity means Peter, 42, can't use any electric gadgets and can't go outside his house in case he walks near a wifi network” (Gemma Mullin, Daily Mail online, 16 October 2014). Peter Lloyd is unable to use any electrical gadgets like TV or mobile phone. He cannot use mains electricity to heat or light his home in case he gets ill. A former personal fitness trainer, he first noticed symptoms in his mid-twenties. His condition has gradually deteriorated and he is now unable to walk. Mr Lloyd faces eviction by landlord who is unhappy he does not heat his home. He is fighting to be moved to wooden hut in an isolated location.
42. Mark Lutzow: 15 March 2014: We have been living near Victor Harbor for the past 27 years. Last year I started noticing strange pains in my body specially while driving to Victor Harbor, Goolwa and Middleton. I started getting chest, joint and thyroid pains, numbness in the face, headaches, sharp pains through the eye and the side of my head. After being back home for several hours all symptoms left. I started researching and found that I am sensitive to the microwave frequencies from the phone towers. I needed proof so I ordered test equipment from the US. The readings proved my suspicions that the microwaves where making me ill. The phone towers are popping up like mushrooms everywhere. They are placed next to churches, aged care homes, child care facilities and industrial areas where people work all day and have no protection from those very dangerous microwaves. Are we guineapigs?
43. Abuconga: 20 September 2014: I have been forced to move to the country due to my EHS. I have been fortunate enough to find a cottage that is out of mobile phone tower range near Wangaratta. Now it may be demolished due to bureaucracy. I want fellow sufferers to come here and stay so that we can declare this a refuge.
44. Public Transportation
45. February 2013: Two incidents of pilots fainting in flight. Alaska Airlines said an unspecified illness caused one of its pilots to lose consciousness while flying a Boeing 737-700, leading the co-pilot to declare an emergency. While the aircraft was at cruising altitude, the pilot, with 28 years of experience, stood up, became dizzy, lost consciousness and fell to the floor. There was a similar fainting episode on January 22, also on an Alaska Airlines aircraft. In that case, the co-pilot briefly lost consciousness in flight. In both cases, the pilots held current medical certificates. There could be several contributing factors. Evidently, all these Alaska Airlines jets are WiFi-enabled. Potential adverse effects from this exposure can include nausea, vertigo and fainting. Was this a contributing factor?
46. A Captain for a Canadian commercial air carrier writes: “Having read a lot of research on this topic, and hearing first-hand how other airline employees are reacting to Wifi, in hotel rooms and elsewhere, I am certain that this form of radiation is having a negative health effect on many of us. The number of airline employees this year, including pilots and flight attendants, who report having difficulty with WiFi seems to be growing. Evidently, there are some pilots off sick with mysterious Parkinson-like symptoms. I can experience ill effects including nausea, shortness of breath, overall body weakness, and when in a sustained WiFi environment, I have difficulty focusing, and have skin reactions. I get these symptoms in hotels, the terminal, my flight planning area and also from cell phones brought onboard the aircraft. I do not experience these symptoms when away from this exposure. I will be unable to continue flying if WiFi is installed on my aircraft. Safety of the aircraft and the health of those onboard, not entertainment, should be the priority”
47. “I am a First Officer for a US air carrier. When I fly the WiFi-equipped A321 my joints hurt with inflammation and arthritic-like pain. It typically takes about 24 hours for the pain to subside. Other symptoms can include severe headaches, shortness of breath, sleep problems. I do not get the same symptoms flying the non-WiFi aircraft, even though they are in the same family. Airport terminals are now another challenge. If I have to spend any excessive time in them I get the same reactions as I do from the WiFi equipped aircraft. Hotel overnights, all in WiFi rooms, are another problem for me now. When I sleep in a non-WiFi room, I sleep much better.”
48. Hanna Nurminen, of Finland, describing her cellphone: “It stings my ear just as if someone had stabbed a nail into my head. My skin doesn’t just get inflamed and itchy and hot, but I also come out in a rash as if I’d grabbed a stinging-nettle.” Nurminen describes travel from Helsinki to Turku by bus, where in a nearby seat, a woman spoke on her mobile for the entire two-hour journey. After the trip, Nurminen’s muscles and joints ached for several days. Hanna Nurminen, (Herlin), is board member of international elevator and escalator company Kone. Chair of the Board of the Kone Foundation (Koneen Säätiö), that promotes Finnish academic research, arts and culture.
Deborah Pool’s grandchildren
51. Deborah Pool: 18 May 2014: A Verizon cell tower has a constant vibration coming from its structure. My grand-children are very sick with headaches, they stay awake at night until they finally pass out. They can barely make it to school. It’s horrible when a 6-year old cries “Please make the noise stop”.
Right of child to healthy life
52. Article 24-1 states: Parties recognize the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health and to facilities for the treatment of illness and rehabilitation of health. States Parties shall strive to ensure that no child is deprived of his or her right of access to such health care services.
Article 27-1 states: Parties recognize the right of every child to a standard of living adequate for the child's physical, mental, spiritual, moral and social development.
15-year-old girl, 12-year-old boy
55. 15-year-old girl suffers from pain in her ear when using a cellphone. She has a headache when others in her class use cellphones next to her, or charge phones near her seat. After the headache subsides, she feels “a cloud in her head”, forgets words, and feels “numb” for several hours. These symptoms do not happen during holidays (no wireless at home).
12-year-old boy began feeling EHS symptoms last school year. He suffers headache every day at school, pain in his legs (he used to keep his phone in trouser pocket), tingling hands and has concentration difficulties. The boy says his head hurts more near the computer room, near the sports room and near the teachers’ room where there are laptops: “Like someone is pressing hard on my head”. He feels the presence of routers or antennas. He has had many absences from school because of illness, affecting his achievements.
Pediatric patients I examined:
56. 9-year-old girl began suffering from EHS symptoms last year: headaches, stomach aches. The girl used to call her parents from school almost every day to come and take her home early, because she is sick. At home she complained of pain in her temples. During the summer holiday pain almost disappeared but started anew at the new school year. She feels especially bad in the music classroom and sometimes stops playing her recorder in the middle of a piece when she becomes disoriented. (Child testimonies submitted to Israeli court by Dr. Yael Stein).
57. 12-year-old boy began suffering from EHS after his parents installed WiFi at home and the boy used tablet and smartphone. His mother noticed that boy’s complaints of headaches appear after his use of these devices. He suffers from headache in a specific classroom that has high exposure levels, holds his head and cries. The parents informed teachers that the boy cannot participate in lessons in this classroom but sometimes the teacher does not allow him to leave the class. The boy leaves the class without the teacher’s permission because he cannot tolerate the pain. (Child testimonies submitted to Israeli court by Dr. Yael Stein).
58. 10-year-old boy: EHS symptoms appeared this school year. He returns from school every day with a headache, worn out, and complains of aches and pains. When he sits at a computer with WiFi, he feels palpitations, tension and pulse beats in his head, his hands tingle and his eyes burn. He has recently developed concentration and memory problems. (Child testimonies submitted to Israeli court by Dr. Yael Stein)
64. EHS as Disability
65. Ex-language teacher, Sue, was forced to retire early due the severity of her condition. Marie worked in the NHS before taking early retirement due to ill health. Soon after her life was turned upside down when she discovered she was electrosensitive. Andrew was a children’s author and teacher before he had to stop working due to his electrosensitivity.
66. In Sweden, electrohypersensitivity (EHS) is an officially fully recognized functional impairment (i.e. it is not regarded as a disease). The Swedish Association for the Electrohypersensitive is a handicap organization included in the Swedish Disability Federation (Handikappförbundens SamarbetsOrgan; HSO).
The World Health Organization (WHO): “EHS is characterized by a variety of non-specific symptoms that differ from individual to individual. The symptoms are certainly real and can vary widely in their severity. Whatever its cause, EHS can be a disabling problem for the affected individual.”
Support required: reduced exposure
70. Too much implementation of new technologies? The required support is refraining from new technologies.
71. A specific population today, in the modern Western world, may not enter public places, including many streets, cannot receive health or law services, in some cases also religious services, has to leave work, has to leave home . People look for Refuge areas, far from society.
73. EHS Refuge Zones
74. EHS refuge site in France: communal cooking area, protected central sitting area. The nearest neighbor is about 1 km (2/3 mile) away. There are two cell towers in the area, 9 km (6 miles) and 15 km (9 miles) away. The nearest town is Valence.
75. Faraday cage campers
76. Reflective metallic paint on the exterior, testing the Faraday cage for extreme conditions (antennas above), taking out all the interior fittings to insert a new floor covering in Duralumin 4/10th sheet Duralumin, an alloy of aluminium, copper, magnesium and manganese.
Organizations for people with EHS
79. EHS Refuge Zone Open in France: there is a vast estate in the countryside of France that is a private emergency "Refuge Zone" that has been put at the disposal of EHS sufferers in distress, temporarily and without charge, on a humanitarian basis. It is not a true White Zone.
‘WEEP WEEP’ is a Canadian initiative to stop wireless electric electromagnetic pollution.
ElectroSensitivity UK is located in London England. This organization provides unbiased and balanced information to help those who have become sensitive to mobile and cordless phones, their masts, wifi, and a multitude of common everyday electrical appliances.
The Swedish Association for the ElectroHyperSensitive, FEB, was founded in Sweden in 1987 with 10 members. It has currently about 2 400 active members. The association's main task is to support the injured and to create understanding for their problem.
Electrosensitivity finally recognized
80. Electrosensitivity finally recognized as a disease? 2013: Véronika, a graphics designer in Tours, 56 years old, electrosensitive for more than 10 years, has just been acknowledged as a disabled worker by the Departmental Home for Handicapped Persons (MDPH) because of her electrosensitivity. “A first in Indre-et-Loire and without doubt in the Central Region,” says Emmanual Denis, departmental delegate for the association Robin des Toits. Veronika now holds a medical certificate dating from last April, issued by a physician in Nantes, specialized in professional and environmental pathologies.
82. Protect the children
"In January 2015, how far from January 1945 were we?"
"I will always remember January 2015. That month we all commemorated the terrifying atrocities performed by the Nazis in the concentration camp Auschwitz-Birkenau; it was then 70 years after the camp had been liberated by the Allied forces. It is with an enormous sense of shame and guilt one watches the films and written documents describing what happened then, and the role certain medical doctors had in the horrible experiments and brutal killings of Jews, Romani, Slavs, communists, and the functionally impaired persons. The parallels between January 2015 and January 1945 are present and real. In January 2015, we were able to witness in Sweden a huge mass-media-based attack launched against persons with the functional impairment called electro-hypersensitivity. They were accused of not having a proper diagnosis, no proofs to back their claims of ill health when exposed to modern society’s artificial electro-smog, and so it was meant that they obviously should not be entitled to any economic support from the Swedish state ...
Hypersensitives should not be refugees
Also remember that forcing people with such functional impairments out into various sanctuaries or zones is completely in opposition to the UN disability laws, the Standard Rules, and its Convention, and could be the beginning of a terrible trend. … Where would it end …? That even medical doctors, editors, journalists, reporters or news anchors would be forced off to camps based on someone’s flimsy private opinions? (I shudder when I think of such a trend! The images from WWII are still too vivid…) …
Back to 1945
I felt I was back in January 1945. I suddenly clearly understood why medical doctors – having been in charge in the concentration camps for the persons with functional impairments – after WWII were rid of this by the UN, and why the responsibility for this was transferred from the county councils and the medical profession to the municipalities and their civil servants. Let us now not turn back, but move ahead. Let us give the persons with electro-hypersensitivity an equal life in a society based on equality. We can afford it."
(Olle Johansson: “Electro-hypersensitivity: In January 2015, how far from January 1945 were we?”NewsVoice, February 24 2015)